Before knowing different types of footing, one must understand what is footing? and how it is useful for construction.
What is footing?
Footing is the part of the foundation which resists and distributes the load of the whole structure to the ground properly through the columns. Generally, it is wider than the column. Foundation and footing are two different things. We can say foundation to the footing but not say footing to the foundation. There are different types of footing but we have described the important types of footing those are as follows.
Also read: Different types of bridges
Types of footings:
- Isolated footing
- Combined footing
- Strip footing
- Strap footing
- Raft footing
- Pile footing
The isolated footing is the simple and most economical type of footing which transfers the load to the underground soil. Generally, its provide when a single column is to be provided. Generally, these footings are made when the building is not to be built very high. When the ground is black or sandy then these footings are much beneficial in order to get the strength. These footings are often more used in the construction of shades.
Also read: Basic civil engineering
When a single footing has to use two or in rare cases more than two columns is known as combined footing. In this sense, when two and more columns come closer or are taken closer according to the load calculation then combine footing is taken of all the columns. These types of footing is mostly used in heavy and costly structures. This type of footing is not the most economical which means it is costly to use. Generally, it is not used for small structures.
Strip footing is also the type of shallow footing. This type of footing is also called wall footing or continuous footing which is mostly used in a load-bearing structure below the wall. Generally, the width of the strip footing is more than twice the width of the wall. nowadays, the use of these types of footings is reduced a lot. This type of footing is most economical and has less strength as compared to other types of footings.
Also read: Types of beam
Strap footing is a type of combined footing consisting of two or more column footings connected by a beam. This beam we called a strap beam. The strap beam and the footings hold to each other. Even if one column has been moved since its opening then from the other footing its remains standing. This type of footing is not the most economical and it is rarely used because its required more excavation. These types of footings are mostly used for big structures.
Raft footing is also known as mat foundation, these are a slab of concrete that spread on a whole firm, level bed of soil its extend across the largest part of the foundation of the construction. This is the thick concrete slab reinforced with steel. It is the most costly foundation and it is also rarely used. These types of footing mostly used in big structures. It is the entire slab over which comes the columns, beams, and the whole structure. It spread the load of the whole structure equal to the earth. These footings are mostly used for the structure or basement.
Also read: Types of staircase
Pile footing is the kind of deep foundation. It is the series of columns constructed or inserted into the ground to transfer the load to the lower level of the soil. Pile footing can also be called a pile foundation. The image given below can explain much better.
That was all about different types of footings, There are also lots of different types of foundations. DK3DHOMEDESIGN.